Data sources

This page presents various sources of open data that are currently available for aviation research. Our preference goes for data that is fully open. Some providers make data freely available, some ask for registration and may impose limits. We try to cover the license issue as much as we can. However, it is your responsibility to check the licensing terms carefully around the provided data before using it.

Surveillance data, ADS-B, Mode S

Currently, the most easily accessible open flight data is undoubtedly ADS-B data. It is relatively simple to set up your Mode S/ADS-B receiver and start gathering data. Several crowd-sourced receiver networks also provide accesses to their live or historical data. Here are a few sources providing free access:

  • The OpenSky Network (live API) allows you to obtain live flight data over the world for free, without registration.
  • The OpenSky Network (historical data) allows academics to access historical data flight data (including decoded ADS-B data and raw Mode S data) over the world for free. Registration is needed. Access to the historical database must be requested individually.
  • ADS-B Exchange (live API) allows you to obtain live flight data over the world freely. However, you must first feed data to ADS-B Exchange, and registration is also required.

For all the above sources, the data are provided for non-commercial use only. Specific agreements may be needed for commercial uses.

Flight (or schedule) data

The following websites provides access to flight data, usually contains the origin, destination, number of passengers or aircraft information

  • 🇺🇸 Bureau of Transportation Statistics (T-100 Segment, All Carriers). This table combines domestic and international T-100 segment data reported by U.S. and foreign air carriers, and contains non-stop segment data by aircraft type and service class for transported passengers, freight and mail, available capacity, scheduled departures, departures performed, aircraft hours, and load factor.
  • 🇪🇺 Aviation Data for Research contains all detailed flight information regarding flight departing and/or arriving from EUROCONTROL member states. The data is only publish with two-year delay and only include four months each year, which are March, June, September, and December. Access to this data need to be requested on the website.
  • 🇧🇷 Dados Estatísticos, Agência Nacional de Aviação Civil (ANAC), Brazil provides all flight information departing from and/or arriving at Brazil since 2000
  • 🇮🇳 Flight Schedule Date, India contains the data regarding from AirSewa data, including data about the flight schedule, status, and airport services.
  • 🇦🇺 Aviation Statistics, Australia contains domestic and international aviation statistics including airline activity, domestic on time performance, domestic airfares index, airfreight, airport traffic, general aviation activity, aviation fuel sales and air distances.
  • 🇭🇰 Flight Information, Hong Kong contains flight Information of Hong Kong International Airport, including data about the flight schedule, status, passenger/cargo flight. This web service returns historical data (previous calendar day) in JSON format.

Several website provide databases of tail numbers, transponder hexcodes associated to an aircraft type. Such information is precious when analysing aircraft trajectories.

Aircraft information:

Transponder information:

Aircraft and engine performance

Much of the performance related data are kept closed by manufacturers. Here is a list of open data that are available:

  • OpenAP contains aircraft performance parameters for around 20 most common commercial aircraft. The Open Aircraft Performance Model is constructed using only open data and open models. It includes performance data regarding aircraft characteristics, drag polar, engine performances, and kinematic models.
  • ICAO Aircraft Engine Emissions Databank contains the most comprehensive list of engine emission data. It is a database maintained by ICAO and is regularly updated.

Airports, airspaces, ATS routes and navigational points

Many sources on the Internet are somehow redundant. They overlap quite well but some sources are more precise than others in particular areas of the world:

  • The FAA Aeronautical Data Delivery Service provides a comprehensive database of relevant information over their airspace using standard format.
  • OurAirports is a free site where visitors can explore the world’s airports. It has been launched after Australia forced the US to close their DAFIF database to the general public. Information about airports, even shutdown, and their runways is available, searchable and downloadable.
  • The API from wikidata could be used for all kind of air transport infrastructure, like airports, taxiways and runways. You may run an example request for reference.
  • Openstreetmap overpass API provides very precise information about airports, including gates, runways, parking positions and more.
    See an example at London Heathrow airport. The traffic library wraps these calls for you.


The following websites provide a large history of METAR data.
METARs report basic weather information around airports:

The following website provides METAR, TAF and SIGMET history:


  • The Japanese Meteorological Agency 気象庁 provides weather information datasets on their website (in Japanese).


The European Aircraft Noise Services (EANS) provides data from sensor devices across Europe. More specifically in the following countries:

Air quality

The European Environment Agency makes some measurements available through the following interface. More specifically in the following countries:

  • France: the Prév’air database provides observation and forecast maps
  • The Netherlands: a webpage provided by the Dutch Ministry of Health (RIVM)

The Japanese National Institute for Environmental Studies provides historical data of air quality measurements:

Live data for airspace usage

Some providers publish information about the current state of the network:

  • Eurocontrol provide information about the current state of the network with regulation information on their homepage;
  • You may apply for access to the FAA SWIM live feed;

Developer API from airlines and airports

Many airports and airlines provide an access to their API after you register for an API key:
(in alphabetic order)

Schedules from airlines

Some airlines offer timetables in a machine-readable format like CSV or XLS for cargo operations (may include some flight numbers representing truck or railway connections):
(in alphabetic order)

Miscellaneous transportation data

(in alphabetic order)